README - Net::SSLeay Perl module for using OpenSSL

31.7.1999, Sampo Kellomaki <>
Version: 1.05

1.05: fixed certificate gen at make test
1.04: overhaul for OpenSSL-0.9.3b (try

By popular demand...

   perl -e 'use Net::SSLeay; \
          ($p)=Net::SSLeay::get_https("", 443, "/"); print $p'


perl5.005       though anything starting from perl5.002 probably works.
OpenSSL-0.9.3a  (try - nothing
                earlier works and I do not guarantee that anything
                later works either (but chances are good, if OpenSSL C API
                stabilizes at this version). If the newest version does
                not work, downgrade to OpenSSL-0.9.3a before asking questions.
		Or check if there is a newer version of this module available.

Note: SSLeay is no loger supported. If you want to use Net::SSLeay with
      SSLeay or early versions of OpenSSL, use version 1.03. The support
      for SSLeay was dropped due to nobody maintaining it (all active
      work goes on with OpenSSL) and due to incompatible API changes
      in OpenSSL-0.9.2b. OpenSSL-0.9.1c support has also been dropped,
      version 1.03 was the last one to support that.


	# build OpenSSL as per instructions in that package

	gunzip < | tar xvf -
	./Makefile.PL -t     # builds and tests it (3 compile warnings)
	make install         # You probably have to be root to do this
	perldoc Net::SSLeay  # optional, but highly recommended

	*** windows details are still being worked out. If you manage
	to compile this with different development environments under
	Win32, please mail the diffs/success reports to me at

	Windows build was greatly helped by Anton Roeckseisen <>

	read README.Win32

You should also be able to use to install this module if you like.

For linking against RSAref add -rsaref flag like this:

	./Makefile.PL -rsaref -t  # builds and tests it, link against RSAref

You must previously have built OpenSSL with RSAref support (which
implies first building rsaref itself), I use the RSAglue method. File
librsaref.a must be found in one of the locations searched by linker
(-L switches). Usually this means that you have to rename rsaref.a to
librsaref.a and copy it to suitable directory, e.g. /usr/local/ssl/lib.

Problems (read this before sending mail)

If you send me a question or make a bug report, please remeber

  - Your platform and OS version (i386 Linux, Sparc Solaris, etc) (uname -a)
  - On Linux, please report glibc version as well)
  - Net::SSLeay version
  - OpenSSL version (/usr/local/ssl/bin/openssl version)
  - ANSI C compiler make and version (gcc -v)

If build fails,
  - three compiler warnings are known to be emitted (due to lack of const
    in some places), one of them indicates a fatal bug in callback handling,
    but as I have not yet sorted it out, you'll simply have to ignore it
  - if you installed OpenSSL from some distribution, try getting a fresh
    copy from and recompiling and installing it yourself
  - make sure you are not being confused by the fact that OpenSSL-0.9.3
    changed the location of include files to /usr/local/ssl/include/openssl/*
    Consider deleting all bogus old headers
  - if using newer than supported OpenSSL, please downgrade to supported
  - send full output of `make clean; perl Makefile.PL -t'

If make test fails, please
  - one warning is known to be emitted between tests 4 and 5 (callback)
  - edit and set $trace=2
  - send full output of `make clean; perl Makefile.PL -t'
  - send contents of sslecho.log

If you have problems with a site, please
  - what site, what server software
  - does it reproduce with s_client (try with something like

   echo 'GET /' | /usr/local/ssl/bin/openssl s_client -connect

  - does it reproduce with popular web browsers

HP-UX is known to give some problems, please mail me or the mailing
list so we can get these problems straightened. Hint: it has to do
with dynamic loading.

I have a report ( of make test segfaulting on
Linux-PPC. This still needs to be investigated.

It seems perl5.004 (at least some versions) has bad xsub compiler which
can make builds sometimes fail. Try upgrading to perl5.005 first.

"Random number generator not seeded!!!" This warning indicates that
    randomize() was not able to read /dev/random or /dev/urandom, possibly
    because your system does not have them or they are differently
    named. You can still use SSL, but the encryption will not be as

Did you read the POD documentation (if you don't know what that
is, just say `perldoc Net::SSLeay' or `more')?

Are you sure you didn't confuse `Net::SSLeay' with `SSLeay' that
comes with OpenSSL?

My development environments are

  i686, Linux-2.0.37, gcc-, perl5.005_03
  i586, Linux-2.0.36, gcc-, perl5.005_02

Unfortunately I do not have access to other systems so you are
somewhat on your own. Everything compiles without a warning (except
those mentioned above) on my systems.

Check if there are any post release building hints in

Check that perl is finding your OpenSSL.

If `make test' bombs, add following line to the test script that fails:

	$Net::SSLeay::trace = 2;

and see what happens. You may also have to edit to make sure
the debugging output gets printed.

If `make test' prints lots of `connect: Connection refused...' errors,
then test server has died. It is supposed to be launched in
the beginning of, but can fail if, e.g. port 1212 is taken or
in TIMEWAIT state. Look also in ssleacho.log file for diagnostics.

If you are really low on memory and the 1 MB tests fail, edit value of
$mb variable in

If you get core dump, build your perl for debugging (add -g to
ccflags, see INSTALL in perl distribution), build your SSLeay for
debugging as well, add -g flag to Makefile.PL:

	make clean
	perl Makefile.PL -g
	make static
	make test_static
	gdb perl core       # post mortem
	  > bt              # show stack trace
	gdb perl            # run live with debugging
	  # set break point in SSLeay.xs or in suspect function of OpenSSL
	  > br XS_Net__SSLeay_connect
	  > run arg arg

For gdb'ing make sure gdb finds all the relevant source code. This
may mean that you must run perl and OpenSSL from the directories where
the respective makefiles build them.

You can also enable PR and PRN macros in SSLeay.xs and sprinkle
even some more around the code to figure out what's happening.

Some exotic configurations of perl may cause unstability: make sure
OpenSSL uses the same malloc as perl. Recompile perl without
threads. Try not using the PerlIO abstraction.

If you need to tweak build for some platform, please let me know
so I can fix it. Patches and gdb session dumps are also welcome.

Recommended reading

===> HTTP protocol specification. It applies 100% to HTTPS too and doing
password authentication is explained there. <===

If you are newbie interested in grabbing web pages from https servers,
please read HTTP documentation from <a
href=""></a> before asking trivial
questions. That document also covers the basic-auth FAQ (URLs like
http://user:pass@host). Do not ask questions about authentication before
consulting the HTTP specification. HTTPS is just HTTP in SSL transport.

If you are doing advanced stuff, and dont find documentation you need,
please try to extrapolate from OpenSSL documentation (which unfortunately
is quite sparse) and source code.

If you run into build problems, especially regarding shared libraries,
check your perl documentation, especially the perlxtut(1) man page,
which gives excellent tutorial of the build process of XSUBs.


Say `perldoc Net::SSLeay' _NOW_!

To download OpenSSL, try URL

Newer versions of this module can be found from CPAN/authors/id/SAMPO/,
the home page is

Please send bug reports to the above address. General questions should be
sent either to me or to the mailing list (subscribe by sending mail
to or using web interface at